In this Article we talk about Iran pistachio and world pistachio.
The United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran are world leaders in the production and cultivation of pistachios. Republic of Turkey, and Syrian Arabic Republic is ranked in the production of pistachios after the United States and Iran.
Countries like Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Greece, Jordan, Italy, Madagascar, Spain, Tunisia, china, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan are also producing pistachios,
but most of their products are consumed locally, or partially are exported to countries in Their respective areas.
In case of pistachios, producer countries are generally not thought to import,
but still statistics shows the United States and Iran are both importing.
as we know Iran re-exporting of their imported pistachio after some processing on it.
Major importer countries of pistachio.
The largest import markets for pistachios are Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, Canada, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Russia.
Not all countries have direct import from pistachio producing countries. However, re-shipping may occur for these reasons:
1. Strategic Business Objectives,
2. quality issues, the escape of domestic and foreign regulations
The largest exporter / importer -non-producing of pistachios
Hong Kong, as the largest pistachio re-importer, has a key position in global pistachio trade,
Hong Kong is the gateway to China, and also re-exporting it from china to other countries.
Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the United Arab Emirates also act in the same way and are in the next positions.
World production of pistachios exceeded 524,000 tons in 2015-2016, up 24% compared to the same period in the past 10 years, 2005-2006, now production of pistachio reached to 1.1 million tones, it shoes 3.29% yearly increase from 1997.
In 2016 global production, Iran produced 210,000 tons (40% share), after that Turkey with 145,000 tons (28% share) and the United States with 127,000 tons (24% share). These countries, as the largest pistachio producers, supply about 92% of the world’s total pistachio.
Iran’s Global Ranking in Pistachio Production
According to statistics released by the FAO, the United States produces 406,000 tons of pistachios per year, the world’s first largest producer of this product.
Iran is ranked second in production of 315,000 tons of pistachios.
Iran’s closest rival is Turkey, with 170,000 tons’ production.
China is predicted to be a serious threat to Iran and the United States with the policy of boosting its production
and its Production has tripled in 4 years in the coming years.
Requirements for Iran pistachio tree growth
1- Above sea level
only some Areas of the country are suitable for planting and growing pistachios in
terms of weather and environment, which has very cold winters and hot and long summer.
And Usually these conditions are provided at an altitude of 800-900 meters above sea level.
In Kerman province, Iran pistachio trees also planted at the height of 1850 meters.
Today,Iran pistachio cultivation and production are carried out at lower altitudes and produced a good crop.
suitable temperature for cultivating this plant is 45 ° C in summer and 20 ° C in winter.
Pistachio is susceptible to late spring frost, and the temperature of freezing and even close to it will cause a lot of damage.
However, the summer heat is necessary for the growth and pistachio kernels development and should be enough.
Generally,Iran pistachio trees are located at latitude of 42-24 ° N, but the cultivation of Iran pistachio trees in Iran is 37-27 ° N
The pistachio tree can be easily planted in most soils of different tissues (texture) and genus
And in calcareous and passionate soils its tolerance is better than other fruit trees.
But in shallow, hard and rocky soils it does not produce good crop.
The best Iran pistachio soil is sandy clay soils The greater depth and the more uniform, makes pistachio trees grow better and faster and give more iran pistachio.
In assessing the quality of irrigation water, three important issues have to be considered
1-If water irrigation has less than 0.7 ds / m EC(Electrical Conductivity) and the its SAR
(Sodium adsorption ratio) was less than 3.5 0.7 ds /m.There is no limit to using this kind of water irrigation.
2-If water EC (Electrical Conductivity) was greater than 2 (ds / m), it will accumulate in salts, may cause accumulation of salts. For this reason, using of these waters will be restricted.
Irrigation water witch its SAR (Sodium adsorption ratio) was greater than 7, cause reduce water penetration in the soil. In this case, the imbalance between calcium –magnesium and sodium causes Particle dispersion.
Importance of proper management of irrigation
Iran located in the dry and semi-arid region of the world and the average annual rainfall is 250 mm, which is one third of the world’s average rainfall.
in other hand, the evaporation rate of the free surface of water and soils in Iran is equal to 2 meters and is equal to three times (triple)the average evaporation in the world.
Water requirement of plants directly related to rainfall and evapotranspiration, and the need for water increases with lower rainfall and higher plant evapotranspiration.
Irrigation experts, and users of the water and agriculture sector believe with decrease in water resources led us to the use of irrigation methods with best efficiency,
One of the ways to increase irrigation efficiency is to use ways that need less water with the rate of performance that is not significantly altered by reducing water consumption.
Generally, the water requirement of Iran pistachio seedlings is about 4000 cubic meters per hectare per year (for a 4-5-year-old seedlings),
and the same is recommended for one-year-old seedlings irrigation,
due to the fact that the pistachio plant in the First year,it has just been transported to the main place and it has little growth, so their actual demand is much less than 4 thousand cubic meters, and even less than a thousand cubic meters per hectare in the first year.
Since the role of water in life is very important, it can be saved by advanced and modern methods in the agricultural industry for irrigation, and even can provide more crops with better quality.
we all must help the life of future generations.
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