Pistachios as a great source of various nutrients, are hugely consumed all over the world as a healthy food and snack. Pistachios are mostly grow in Iran and they have traditional uses as a medicine because they have lots of health benefits. Overtaking of them may causes some health problems too but moderate uses have lots of health benefits for us. This article presents nutrition facts of pistachios and also their side effects.
Nutrition facts of pistachio:
Pistachio nutrition facts are mentioned bellow based on one ounce (28 grams):
- Calories, 159
Per serving of pistachio includes 159 calories. Calories are source of energy which are essential for health. Among this amount, 116 calories are from fat. Although there is a reputation that nuts are high-fat food, scientific research indicates that type of fat is more important than the amount of fat.
Total fat of each serving is 13 grams, which %90 are healthy fat, including:
Saturated Fat, 1.7g
Polyunsaturated Fat, 3.5g
Monounsaturated Fat, 7g
Trans fat, 0g
- Saturated fats benefits:
They have great benefits for heart and circulatory system. Pistachios include Stearic and Lauric Acid and they can regulate cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing levels of lipoprotein.
- Polyunsaturated Fat benefits:
Reducing heart disease risk by having low LDL (bad) cholesterol. Cholesterol as a soft and waxy substance can cause clogged or blocked blood vessels. Polyunsaturated Fat causes lower LDL cholesterol.
- Monounsaturated Fat benefits:
Reducing the risk of heart disease and inflammation, also helping with weight loss.
- Trans fat benefits:
Raising LDL cholesterol levels and lowering HDL (good) cholesterol levels. Trans fats increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, also they are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
Based on what mentioned above, pistachios are one of the lowest in fat in compare of other nuts. They are also free from Trans-fat as they are unhealthy fat.
- Sodium, 3 mg
Per serving of pistachio includes 0.3 mg Sodium. In case of salted or roasted verities, it may reach to 121 mg of sodium. Heart disease and high blood pressure may be increased by using too much sodium. The benefits of sodium are as bellow:
- Sodium benefits:
Helping body`s fluid balance control, sending nerve impulses and effecting muscle function. High blood pressure can be avoided and lowered by consuming less mount of sodium in diet.
- Potassium, 291mg
All nuts include some potassium, but the highest amount is for pistachio. The other high potassium nuts are: almonds, cashew, peanut, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, and chestnuts. Take a glance at potassium benefits bellow.
- Potassium benefits:
Regulating fluid balance nerve signals and muscle contractions. It also reduces blood pressure and water retention. stroke, osteoporosis and kidney stones can also be prevented by having high-potassium diet.
- Carbohydrate, 7 g
About 8 grams of carbohydrate in our body can be provided by a serving of pistachio, and also %12 of the daily value of fiber. Pistachios also are good sources of plant protein and healthy fats. To know more about carbohydrate, read the following paragraph.
- Carbohydrate benefits:
It is such as fuel for kidney, heart, brain, central nervous system and muscle. Carbohydrate includes fiber that aids indigestion and helps feel full and keep blood cholesterol levels in check.
- Dietary fiber 3 g
Pistachios are great source of fiber. Our body`s required amount of fiber can be provided by pistachio, it is about %12 of daily value. The benefits of dietary fiber are as bellow:
- Dietary fiber benefits:
Preventing stroke, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and certain gastrointestinal disease by having dietary fiber diet. Lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels.
- Sugar, 2 g
Due to low glycemic index in pistachios, they do not increase blood sugar sharply. Having pistachio regularly, may reduce diabetes risk and blood sugar level. Even significant drops in insulin levels and blood sugar were experienced by people who were suffering from prediabetes. They ate 2 ounces of pistachios every day. Sugar benefits includes:
- Sugar benefits:
Essential for brain health, lowering blood pressure, decreasing heart attack risk and making us less likely to develop dementia.
- Protein, 7 g
Pistachios are good source of plant protein. Protein as one of the main required substances in our body, has many benefits, including:
- Protein benefits:
Main building block of muscles, bones, blood, skin and cartilage, making hormones, enzymes and other body chemicals, being used to repair and build tissues.
Pistachios as a healthy nut are also great source of various vitamins including, vitamin A, vitamin C, Vitamin B6, vitamin D, and Cobalamin or Vitamin B 12. Benefits of each one are mentioned bellow.
- Vitamin A benefits: %2.9
Protecting eye from night blindness and age-related decline, lowering risk of certain cancer, supporting a healthy immune system, reducing risk of acne, supporting bone health, promoting healthy growth and reproduction.
- Vitamin C benefits: %2.7
Vital for development, repair and growth of all body tissues, involving in body functions such as absorption of iron, wound healing, formation of collagen, the immune system, and maintenance of bones, teeth and cartilage.
- Vitamin B6 benefits:
Promoting brain health and reducing Alzheimer`s risk, preventing clogged arteries, reducing heart disease risk, improving mood and reducing depression symptoms, treating nausea during pregnancy, treating and preventing anemia by aiding hemoglobin production, being useful in treating PMC symptoms.
- Cobalamin or Vitamin B 12 benefits:
Forming red blood cell and preventing anemia, preventing major birth defects, supporting bone health and preventing osteoporosis, reducing macular degeneration risk, improving mood and depression symptoms, benefiting brain by preventing the loss of neurons.
- Vitamin D benefits:
Maintaining teeth and bones health, supporting brain, immune and nervous system health, regulating insulin levels and diabetes, and also supporting cardiovascular health and lung function.
- Calcium, %3
Almonds include the highest amount of calcium among nuts. Pistachio also contains about %3 of calcium in each serving. It can be concluded that pistachios have effects on bone density. Other beneficial results of calcium are mentioned bellow:
- Calcium benefits:
Building and maintaining strong bones, being needed for muscles, heart, and nerves to work properly. Calcium along with Vitamin D protects our body against cancer, diabetes, and blood pressure. It is good for bone health.
- Iron, %6.2
In compare of all popular nuts varieties, pistachio contains the highest amount of iron. It is about %6.2 per serving, nearly 4 times more than almonds or cashews. Iron`s benefits include:
- Iron benefits:
Being needed for immune system function, hemoglobin boosting and anemia treating, eliminating fatigue and its sources.
Health benefits of pistachio
- Helpful to lose weight
As it was mentioned above, although pistachios are a high-fat, calorie-dense nuts, they are associated with weight lost or maintaining weight, along with the reduction in body mass index (BMI). That is due to type of fat, not the amount of fat.
Based on some studies, people who were eating pistachio as an afternoon snack for 12 weeks, had great decrease in MBI and also reducing in triglyceride levels, in compare of a group who had the same amount of pretzels.
In the other case, the result of 6-month study presents decreasing in waistline and reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels among people who provided %20 of daily calories from pistachios.
Also it was shown in a behavioral study, that consumption in-shell pistachio provides %41 fewer calories than shelled pistachio.
- Gut health benefits
Prebiotics is type of fiber which feed good bacteria in gut. As pistachios are good source of prebiotics, having pistachios led to increase the number of good bacteria that fights short-chain fatty acid and increases lactic acid bacteria in gut. Consumption 3 ounces of pistachio daily increases helpful gut bacteria, much more than having almonds instead.
- Beneficial for heart health
Pistachios are nutrient-packed nuts, that most of mentioned minerals have positive effects on heart health. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels can be reduced by consuming pistachio daily. Pistachios improve HDL cholesterol level and reduce blood pressure so they prevent heart disease.
It is also reported that the risk of cardiovascular disease will be reduced by having two portions of pistachio each day.
- Blood sugar balance
Pistachios may lower the blood sugar and the risk of diabetes because they have low glycemic index. The result of one study presented that having pistachio with high carbohydrate food may reduce blood sugar and glucose levels.
Fasting blood sugar can be reduced by consuming 25 grams of pistachio as a snack twice a day.
Therefore, if you are interested to control your blood sugar, you can easily add pistachio to your diet.
- Lower Gestational Diabetes
Some pregnant women suffer from gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. It causes high blood glucose that can affect both mother and baby health. based on the result of a study among pregnant women, having pistachio during pregnancy will significantly lower in blood sugar and insulin levels.
So the benefit of consuming pistachios during pregnancy is proved by scientific research.
- Beneficial for eye health
Pistachios as a rich source of antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin are good for eye health because they reduce the chances of developing AMD (age-related macular degeneration) and cataracts. One of the main reasons of blindness in the United States is cataracts and AMD.
To prevent developing of these eye disease, having a healthful diet including pistachio is recommended.
- Lowering cancer risk
The impact of fiber on reduction of cancer risk is proved scientifically. Pistachios are high fiber nuts, so they may reduce the cancer risk, specially colon cancer.
Some researches show that roasted pistachios have no effect on colon cancer risk.
- Help Erectile Dysfunction
Quality of life in men depends on some reasons. Erectile dysfunction is mentioned as a main reason of decreased quality life among men. Also there is a link between heart attack and impotence.
As pistachios are high in antioxidants, and antioxidants have a Viagra-like effect of increasing nitric oxide production, having three to four handful of pistachios daily for three weeks improves blood flow through the penis and significantly firmer erections.
Therefore, the pistachio effect on sexual function is represented by some studies.
- Improving Brain Function
To be more focused and attentive at work is related to some factors, such as eating protein, fiber, grains, getting more sleep, etc. Loma Linda University (LLU) did a study and they found having nuts regularly improve brain function and brainwave frequencies which are related to learning, memory, and cognition. Pistachio produced greatest gamma waves compared with other nuts, which are essential for learning, perception, information retention, and cognitive processing.
Having pistachio daily causes our brain to work better and improve our concentration.
- Prevent early aging
Vitamin E, Vitamin B6, and copper are essential minerals to protect and improve skin and hair health. Vitamin E helps skin to stop aging and protect it from UV damage. Vitamin B6 improves overall health of hair and skin and copper is needed to produce skin elastin. All these contents are found in pistachios, so pistachios are helpful to preserve skin health.
Side effects of pistachio
Pistachios are rich sources of nutrients and they have lots of health benefits, but at the same time, there could have some side effects and risk if we have too many pistachios, specially roasted and salted types. Their side effects are mentioned briefly in bellow:
- Gain weight
As it was mentioned above, pistachios are helpful for weight management, but due to their delicious taste specifically salted type, may cause gaining weight instead. If you want to enjoy pistachios as a healthy snack, please mind taking a handful of it daily.
- Potential high blood pressure
Our body requires about 2000 mg of sodium each day, but too much sodium is dangerous for our health. it causes hypertension and blood pressure and increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Allergic reactions
If you are suffering from nuts allergy, you should avoid having pistachios, as you are most likely to be allergic to pistachios. Feeling itchy skin, pain, or in some cases difficulty in breathing are most common symptoms of nuts allergy.
- Kidney Stone Risk
Anyone who is suffering from kidney disease can consume moderate amount of pistachios, but there is a risk of development of calcium oxalate and cystine kidney stones in case of consuming high quantity of pistachios.
- Digestive problems
The benefits of dietary fibers in pistachios are proved for stomach and digestive system. Pistachios also contain “Fructan” which may bother who are allergic to it so it can rise digestive problems.
- High Manganese Risk
Although manganese is helpful for health, its overeating causes some health risk. Consumption of high manganese food is not recommended for individuals who are suffering from chronic liver diseases, parkinsonism, polycythemia, and hyper manganesemia.
- Health risk of Pesticides and Insecticides
Pesticides and Insecticides are mostly used in pistachio orchards to protect them from pests’ attack. Nausea and other allergic reactions are the symptoms of having pistachios which are highly exposed to pesticides and insecticides.
- Bacterium Salmonella Risk
Bacterium salmonella is kind of harmful bacteria for our health. if the pistachios are contaminated by bacterium salmonella, they may be fatal for elderly and infants. If pistachios are roasted properly, they are safe to eat as bacterium salmonella can be killed by roasting pistachio properly.
Pistachios as one of the nutrient nuts have lots of health benefits for all people, including heart health, gut health, weight management, eye health, blood sugar balance, controlling diabetes risk, lowering cancer risk, sexual function, improving brain function and prevent aging. Actually overeating of them is not good for our health and may causes some problems. Therefore, moderate consumption of pistachios has no bad effects for our health.
Whenever anyone hears the name of pistachio, long or round dried nut comes to their mind. Recognizing different types and species is kind of hard for them. Even though there are many pistachio experts and business people who are earning money from pistachio business annually, but some of them may know about various species and benefits of them. In this article, it is tried to give some basic information about pistachio species and usages of each one and Iranian pistachio genera in particular.
Pistachio Genera and Species
The anacardiaceae family, also known as cashew family includes about 70 genera and over 600 species. “Pistacia” (scientific name of Pistachio) as a genus of flowering plants contains around 20 species and among them five are more popular, including: P.Vera, P.Atlantica, P.Terebinthus, P.Khinjuk and P.Terebinthus. the specifications of genus “pistacia” species include: being evergreen and deciduous resin-bearing bushes, also xerophytic trees which grow to 10 m tall.
Among these wide varieties of species, three of them are naturally in Iran: P.Vera, P.Khinjuk stocks, and P.Atlantica Desf. P.Atlantica includes three sub spices and P.Vera is the only genus which has commercial use in huge amount. Rootstock for P.Vera is mostly from the other species.
Parts of Tree and Their Benefits
Each tree includes different parts that all are useful. Fruit, leaves, resin and aerial part are different parts of pistachio plants and each one can be used for various purposes. Lots of studies have ever been done to prove the benefits of pistachio fruits in particular and also other parts. Usages of these species in different fields have been considered in scientific studies. Nowadays they are hugely used in traditional medicine, pharmacological activities, hepatoprotectives activities and also beneficial effects in gestrointemical disorders. As an example, mastic also called as Arabic and Yemen gum, is obtained from the mastic tree, devoted to the resin of P.Lentiscus. It is an example of pharmacological activity.
Food industry is also a main field of using these species. Food additive are mostly consumed from P.vera nuts. To make coffee-like drinks or snack food, P.terebinthus fruits are used and also food colorants are made of P.Lentiscus species fruit.
As it was mentioned above, different plant parts are used for different purposes. Not only the purpose depends on parts of plants, but also its region is essential too.
P.lentiscus as the most common species grow in different regions. Based on statistic, its resin is used in medicine for variety of treatment. It is mostly used in Iran as breath deodorizer, and gastrointestinal ailments, Gum tissue strengthener, brain and liver tonic. It is also proved that that resin of P.lentiscus has been used for around 5000 years.
In case of P.atlantica, it is reported that different parts of it, specifically resin, are hugely using in Iran as a treatment for kidney disease, digestive and hepatic. Its fruit is utilized in Iran as Antidiarrheal, its aerial part in Veterinary, and its resin as a treatment of huge number of health problem including: stomach, liver and kidneys tonic, appetizer, phlegm dissolver, mouth freshener, antiseptic, gastrointestinal disorders, Peptic ulcer, gum tissue strengthener, as chewing gum, astringent, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, carminative, visceral inflammation, scabies, stomach, gastrointestinal disorders, and motion sickness.
Different parts of P.terebinthus species are using in some countries such as Greece, Iran, Jordan, turkey and Spain. The smoke of its resin is usually used as air antiseptic and purifier in Iran. Pistachio fruit which is used all over the world is P.Vera species fruit. It used cultivated and commercially traded in Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Syria, Spain, Italy, in Middle East including Iran, and Afghanistan, and United States. Iranians are used to consuming different parts of P.khinjuk,P.Vera, P.lentiscus, P.atlantica and P.terebintus as a traditional treatment and remedy, as an example The P.Vera nut shell is mostly used in Iran as Sedative, tonic and antidiarrheal, and its fruit as food. Areal part of P.khinjuk has veterinary use. Brain and gastrointestinal disorders alongside wound healing can be treated by the gum resin of P. terebinthus, P. lentiscus, P. khinjuk, and P. atlantica. Except P.Vera fruit, the other species fruit are used as a liver, heart, kidney and respiratory system disorders remedy and P.vera fruit kernel is utilized as brain, stomach, cardiac and hepatic tonic. Also Iran is the second biggest exporters and producers of Pistachio nut in the world. Historical reports indicate that pistachio was firstly used as a food around 7000 B.C.
Phytochemical analyses of pistachio species identified different compounds. One of the main constituent of various part of pistachio is essential oil. It is driven from different parts including twigs, galls, flowers, ripe and unripe fruit, resin, leaves and leaf-buds. The content of essential oil is varied in quality and quantity. What makes differences between them depends on various items including time of harvesting, climate condition, geographical origin, species of plant and its part, and sex of cultivars. There are around 63 compounds with the structure of Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and volatile oil based on the plant part and species. Traditional appliance of mentioned species is also proved by phytochemical studies. Among all formation of essential oil, triterpenes found in resin and also monoterpens are the most plentiful composition which are driven from different parts of given species. To find different chemotypes of pistachio, some chemotaxonomic markers can be used, which essential oil components might be worthful. therapeutic results of isolated part are proved and as a result terpenoids including mono, di-, and triterpenoids have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. Effective antioxidant and anticancer activities are also associated with the high amount of flavonoids and phenols.
The genus Pistacia L found as a great source of medicinally molecules scientifically based on pharmacological studies on some pure metabolites, crude plant part and extracts.
P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus and P. khinjuk. And in particular P. lentiscus were used as studied species to investigate their antioxidant effects. The results show anthocyanins, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds have preventive results on treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Iranian pistachios deep view
Iran is located in semi-arid region of the earth and water supply has always been one of the concerns of Iranian pistachio producers.
Over the past half century, underground water levels have dropped significantly in Iranian pistachios garden, last year’s rainfall in Iran totaled 154 mm, while the average rainfall in Iran over the past 50 years was 226 mm.
Also, the average rainfall in the past 11 years was 195 mm, which clearly shows that Iranian pistachios orchard has been experiencing a significant drop in rainfall over the past eleven years, which has led to lower ground water levels.
In some places like Kerman, one of the most important centers for pistachio production in Iran, the average rainfall in the last 50 years was 122 mm, but last year only 51.3 mm of rainfall in the province precipitated, causing the withering few gardens in some province .
This year the rainfall was incredibly good; in the whole Iran 323 mm and in Kerman 161 mm rain,
It is noteworthy that rain is still possible.
This has been a great pleasure for pistachio farmers and also has led to an increase in groundwater levels.
2-Iranian pistachios Bearing And non Bearing Area :
According to the latest official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture, the bearing amount of pistachio garden in Iran is currently about 376,000 hectares, and the amount of non-bearing gardens of pistachios is about 102,000 hectares.
This increase in gardens was mostly found in places other than Kerman, especially in provinces that have rainfall and good soil and climate conditions.
The statistics on “bearing and non-bearing” of Iranian pistachio trees in 2009 and 2016 were as follows.
Bearing and non-bearing pistachio farms in Iran (hectare)
As shown in table above in 2009, 64 percent of Iran’s bearing pistachios were in Kerman, while seven years later in 2016 it reached to 53%. Also, the share of non-bearing pistachio in Kerman has risen from 24.5 percent in 2009 to 13.4 percent in 2016. These statistics clearly shows that the concentration of pistachio planting has been transmitted from Kerman to the other parts of Iran.
3-Cold and hail:
In the past year, cold has two effects on pistachio performance
Different pistachio trees for proper fruiting require a certain number of cold weather hours in winter, while in the last year, in some areas, this did not require adequate amounts in the winter, which reduced crop production and caused a large loss of Iran pistachio sprouts.
This year, pistachio trees have experienced better conditions, and most of pistachio trees reached to their cold weather hours’ needs.
Frost and hail:
during the spring of last year, when pistachio trees blossomed, over some nights temperature dropped below zero in many areas, caused many blossoms to fall, result of those night was decline in Iranian pistachios production.
Also, spring hail problems were also other factors that caused the blossoms to fall in some parts.
Fortunately this year, most of the areas were not frozen.
But hail caused a lot of damage in some of the important areas of Kerman province, more damage caused to the Fandoghi type of pistachio.
4- US economic sanctions
Last year, the United States imposed the most severe sanctions against Iran. The sanctions do not include food, but because of fears of possible US punishment, most foreign banks cut their ties with Iran and refuse to cooperate and transfer money to Iran. As a result, exporters encountered some problems, while Iranian pistachio exporters received their money mainly through exchanges, intermediaries, other countries or importing goods instead of pistachios.
US sanctions have partly affected the operation of sending Iranian pistachios to places like Canada and has increased the cost of sending pistachios to these markets,
But many countries, such as the UAE, which are available by small ships, continue to operate their regular services; ships to destinations in China and India, which are the main targets of Iran’s pistachios, are still ongoing.
A few days ago, Iran’s Chabahar port was exempted from sanctions by the United States government, which is good news for Iranian pistachio exporters, this port will provide special services to the Indian market, which will be valuable for Iranian exporters.
There were other problems with shipping last year,
Truck drivers strike. Last year, truck drivers struck several times.
This caused the delivery of some orders to be delayed, fortunately, the current situation is normal.
Also, many destinations, such as Europe and Russia, are also available through land transport. In general,
US sanctions on land and sea transport in Iran have not had a significant impact on Iran’s pistachio exports.
Iranian pistachio exporters have been mainly involved with domestic problems.
During the past three years, the Central Bank of Iran has repeatedly changed its export regulations and directives, which has caused widespread problems for exporters of pistachios over the past year.
The good news is that a number of pistachio producers, during a meeting with government officials last week . They succeeded in making changes to the export-related instructions to make pistachio exports simpler.
Probably, these changes will increase the speed of Iranian pistachio exports to the rest of the world.
7- Iranian currency exchange rate
The exchange rate of the Iranian currency (Rials) against the dollar has fluctuated over the past year . This caused confusion among exporters and farmers to determine the price of pistachios . Therefore couldn’t plan to have long-term export of pistachios.
8- Iranian pistachios ending season stock
A large number of farmers refused to sell all their pistachios crop because of Constant exchange rate fluctuations.
The pistachio harvest season will come in 3 months . Evidences shows that Iran pistachios will have good amount of crop for the new season.
So Farmers now are supplying the rest of their pistachio products to the market , which has increased the supply of pistachios and a declined its prices for now.
pistachio wholesale price in iran
iranian pistachios for sale
pistachio 1kg price
pistachio prices 2018
iranian pistachios amazon
pistachio price per kilo in india
pistachio price per kilo 2019
Iranian pistachios Prospects for boosting production for the coming new season
In recent years, several factors such as water scarcity, Lack of pistachio trees cold weather need in winter. Also, freezing of trees at flowering time, reduced the production of Iranian pistachios. But the most important factor in reducing the production of Iranian pistachios has been the reduction of rainfall and shortage of water resources in recent years . Good news is this year game changed . In the spring of this year 2019, Iran has had incredible growth in rainfall . just one week raind was equal to last 3 years rain.
In some areas, for one or two days of the spring, the temperature dropped below zero degrees at night and causing damage to some Iranian pistachios trees , Most damage reported for the Fandoghi pistachio trees.
Report for 2017-2018 pistachio
According to reports from different regions of Iran ,It is estimated that Iranian pistachios tree yield will be more than 50% of their production crop capacity this year(2019) And like 2 years ago, it is expected that Iran will have about 250,000 tons of pistachio
The global production of pistachios is expected to hit more than 165,000 tons last year from 2019 to 2018 to 814,000 tons. Turkey and the United States hit the record in pistachio production, thus offsetting a sharp decline in Iranian pistachios output. With a significant increase in supply, global consumption is expected to reach unprecedented levels of 743,000 tons. However, global exports may drop by 50,000 over the past year due to a shortage of Iranian pistachios .
Last year was bad for Iranian pistachios but good news will com.
Iranian pistachios production has been 173,000 tons less than the previous year (2017-2018), reaching 52,000 tons in 2018-2019.
According to the Iranian Pistachio Association; the unheard-of heat of the spring season in Kerman province caused a severe fall of flower buds in this important region of Iranian pistachios production. Iran’s exports to China, the European Union and Turkey are expected to drop from 150 thousand tons last year (2017-2018) to 50 thousand tons in 2018-2019
Following an increase in pistachio cultivation in the United States, pistachio production in the United States amounted to 450,000 tones. It comes from the Pistachio Executive Committee, which records pistachio recording and sales data annually. US exports to China, the European Union and Canada increased.
By reducing the competitiveness of Iran, it is forecasted that US exports to other countries will reach to 250 thousand tons this year.
Turkey’s pistachio production reached 240 thousand tons this year. A large percentage of the Turkish product is consumed inside the country. So there will be no significant increase in exports.
The pistachio imports to China are projected to decline by around 100,000 tons this year due to reduced exports of pistachios from Iran. Despite China’s new customs tariffs on American pistachio,
Exports of pistachios to China will increase, followed by a similar trend.
The European Union:big buy Iranian pistachio VS Us pistachio
The European Union (28 countries) is the largest target for the export of tree nuts from the United States, with 32% of the total US produced in 2017,Also Its big in buy Iranian pistachio.
The share of East Asian countries was 27% in imports of tree nuts and 12% in the Middle East.
In 2017, the value of exports of nuts to the European Union reached $ 2.7 billion;
Almond (dry in shell and kernel) $ 1.5 billion, dry pistachios ($ 44.6 million) and walnuts worth $ 344 million.
Within the European Union, the most important destinations for American nuts are as follows: Spain, Germany and the Netherlands, accounting for 63% of total imports into Europe.
The United States is the largest supplier of tree nuts to Europe. In 2017, the share of the source in the European market was 37%.
Turkey has a second share of the European market (20%), followed by Vietnam, Chile, and India, and almond is still the main commodity, with a share of the total import of nuts to the European Union of 22%.
The main buyers of tree nuts: food processing and nuts industry
Almonds are used more as an ingredient in the production of marzipan, nougat, toron (spanish specialties for Christmas), other sweets and pastries. European growers use pistachios and walnuts for use in ice cream and confectionery.
The European Nutrition and Nutrition Industry is constantly striving to offer new products and methods for consuming more nuts.
However, it is not easy to introduce new products in traditional markets like Spain and Italy.
In these markets, consumers often prefer familiar food products.
Because of the large European marketplace, the focus of food retailers has been to develop strategies for the production of new value added products to sell more commodities in bulk.
They also try to showcase the nutritional value and benefits of tree fruit through new promotional campaigns and packaging
Expansion of trade in the EU market
Since the EU is the main destination for exporting tree beans, American exporters are always looking to expand their trade with these countries.
Trade fairs are a golden opportunity to know about this market and meet potential importers. Some of the major trade fairs in Europe that deal with tree plants are:
Tree nuts fair in European union
|France, Paris||21-25 oct2018||SIAL|
|Germany, Berlin||6-8 Feb 2019||FRUIT LOGISTICA|
|Germany, Nuremberg||13-16 Feb 2019||BIOFACH|
|Germany, Cologne||5-9 Oct 2019||ANUGA|
|Germany, Frankfurt||27-29 Oct 2018||HEALTH INGREDIENTS|
|Switzerland ,Geneva||17-19 May 2019||VITAFOODS|
|Spain, Barcelona||17-28 Jun 2019||SNACKEX|
|France, Paris||3-5 Dec 2019||FOOD INGREDIENTS|
|Spain, Barcelona||20-23 Apr 2020|
To exporters who have recently entered the food business, it is recommended to refer to the FAIRS reports (including standards and regulations for the import of food and agriculture to the European Union) for more information on EU food regulations and familiarizing them with market opportunities.
American activists in the European Union
Associations such as the California Almond Alliance (ABC), The American Pistachio Association (APG) and the Cervical Cancer Commission (CWC) are always seeking to develop business strategies in the European Union market.
These business associations or industry activists, in collaboration with agricultural services offices throughout Europe, are always seeking to increase the market opportunities for tree vegetables.
Pistachios in Italy are a traditional product, especially in Sicily (Bronte Region), which supplies 90% of Italian pistachio.
In recent years, pistachio production has also expanded to some extent in other areas in Sicily and Basilicata.
In these areas newer and more efficient gardens are built.
Bianca (or Napoleon) is the main pistachio in Italy, which is usually harvested in September.
Since 2004, the European Commission has awarded the Brontot Pistachio with a PDO (protected designation of origin), distinguishing it from other varieties of pistachios in the world.
Spanish consumer interest in pistachios is on the rise, as well as pistachio production in Spain, which is undergoing rapid growth.
It is true that pistachios in Spain are not considered to be a traditional product, but high profitability and high demand for this product in the past 10 years has caused the pistachio crop area to rise substantially in Spain.
The production of domestic pistachios is still low, but it is also expanding.
The Castile-La Mancha region has the highest increase in pistachios and production. The expansion of pistachio cultivation is a long-term investment that is expected to continue to increase.
Pistachio production within the EU does not cover domestic demand, so a significant amount of pistachios from Iran and the United States are imported into the European Union.
Pistachios are consumed in various forms in Europe, Use of dry in shell (with skin) as nuts to the consumption of pistachio kernel in the restaurants, cakes, sweets and other food industries and green pistachio powder and pistachio paste in ice cream.
The European Union is one of the main importers of pistachios in the world. Iranian pistachio and the United States pistachio have the biggest share of European pistachio market.
These two countries together have more than 90% of the total pistachio imports to Europe in their hand.
In the European Union market, buy Iranian pistachio is the main rival of the United States.
Iranian pistachio flavor is still better than American pistachio, and this is the most important advantage of Iranian pistachios ( Table 2 ) .
EU-28 Imports of Pistachios by Origin in MT (In-shell Basis) Ton
Country of origin
Exports of pistachios from the EU are very small. The main purposes of pistachio produced in the 28 EU countries in 2016 were the Mellá and Monte Carlo autonomous cities of Spain (Table 3).
|EU-28 Exports of Pistachios by Destination in MT (In-shell )|
|Country of origin|
Do not give nuts and Iranian pistachios to dogs!
Anyone who looks at the picture above may have a craving for Iranian pistachio and nuts and likes to take a handful of it; but this is only for humans and some animals, for dogs it is nothing but poison.
It’s really important to know what hurts your dog and what is good for it.
Some low-skilled and inexperienced owners give their dogs nuts, which will make the poor animal suffer from digestive problems and poisoning.
In this article, we plan to investigate variety of nuts and snacks and tell you how toxic they are released into the dog’s body. Stay with us
Walnut poisoning is one of the most common diseases in dogs.
The average cost for walnut poisoning treatment is 419 $ and for stomach discomfort is about 72 $.
Always protect your pet against nuts and Keep nuts away from your dog
Black walnut contains a poison called jug lone, which is known as a vascular disease in a horse but does not cause it in dogs
. Eating a black walnut can cause stomach discomfort or bowel obstruction (ileus) in dogs.
Furthermore, moldy black walnut may have tremor genic mycotoxins which can cause seizures or nerve symptoms in dogs.
Dogs love the taste of almonds , Almonds are not poisonous but Dogs cannot easily digest it and can causes stomach discomfort.
American walnuts also contain jug lone poison that can cause lameness in the horse. this nut in dogs can cause bowel and stomach discomfort.
Hazelnuts are rich in fats, that makes stomach problems and may cause pancreatitis. In addition, This
nuts contain an unknown type of toxic (poison) that can lead to neural disorders.
English walnut causes stomach Pain (abdominal pain) or even bowel obstruction in the dog’s body. Such as black and Japanese walnuts.
Iranian Pistachios are rich in fat and makes stomach pain. also, repeated eating Iranian pistachios can cause pancreatitis in your dog
So protect your dog with keeping away Iranian pistachios and nuts from them.
how about Iranian pistachio and nuts covered in chocolate?
Nuts covered in chocolate or other candy coatings are even more dangerous.
Chocolate is toxic to dogs. On the whole, even raw nuts seem to be unwise food choices for dogs, even if they are given in moderation as treats
But as you know, it is very useful for human’s body and heart health and, and we will offer you a daily consumption of some Iranian pistachio for a better life.
how about Iranian pistachio and nuts covered in chocolate?
Nuts and Iranian pistachios covered in chocolate or other candy coatings are even more dangerous. Chocolate is toxic to dogs. On the whole, even raw nuts seem to be unwise food choices for dogs, even if they are given in moderation as treats
Although Iranian pistachios are harmful to dogs, but as you know,
it is very useful for human’s body and heart health and, and we will offer you a daily consumption of some Iranian pistachios for a better life.
In this Article we talk about Iran pistachio and world pistachio.
The United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran are world leaders in the production and cultivation of pistachios. Republic of Turkey, and Syrian Arabic Republic is ranked in the production of pistachios after the United States and Iran.
Countries like Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Greece, Jordan, Italy, Madagascar, Spain, Tunisia, china, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan are also producing pistachios,
but most of their products are consumed locally, or partially are exported to countries in Their respective areas.
In case of pistachios, producer countries are generally not thought to import,
but still statistics shows the United States and Iran are both importing.
as we know Iran re-exporting of their imported pistachio after some processing on it.
Major importer countries of pistachio.
The largest import markets for pistachios are Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, Canada, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Russia.
Not all countries have direct import from pistachio producing countries. However, re-shipping may occur for these reasons:
1. Strategic Business Objectives,
2. quality issues, the escape of domestic and foreign regulations
The largest exporter / importer -non-producing of pistachios
Hong Kong, as the largest pistachio re-importer, has a key position in global pistachio trade,
Hong Kong is the gateway to China, and also re-exporting it from china to other countries.
Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the United Arab Emirates also act in the same way and are in the next positions.
World production of pistachios exceeded 524,000 tons in 2015-2016, up 24% compared to the same period in the past 10 years, 2005-2006, now production of pistachio reached to 1.1 million tones, it shoes 3.29% yearly increase from 1997.
In 2016 global production, Iran produced 210,000 tons (40% share), after that Turkey with 145,000 tons (28% share) and the United States with 127,000 tons (24% share). These countries, as the largest pistachio producers, supply about 92% of the world’s total pistachio.
Iran’s Global Ranking in Pistachio Production
According to statistics released by the FAO, the United States produces 406,000 tons of pistachios per year, the world’s first largest producer of this product.
Iran is ranked second in production of 315,000 tons of pistachios.
Iran’s closest rival is Turkey, with 170,000 tons’ production.
China is predicted to be a serious threat to Iran and the United States with the policy of boosting its production
and its Production has tripled in 4 years in the coming years.
Requirements for Iran pistachio tree growth
1- Above sea level
only some Areas of the country are suitable for planting and growing pistachios in
terms of weather and environment, which has very cold winters and hot and long summer.
And Usually these conditions are provided at an altitude of 800-900 meters above sea level.
In Kerman province, Iran pistachio trees also planted at the height of 1850 meters.
Today,Iran pistachio cultivation and production are carried out at lower altitudes and produced a good crop.
suitable temperature for cultivating this plant is 45 ° C in summer and 20 ° C in winter.
Pistachio is susceptible to late spring frost, and the temperature of freezing and even close to it will cause a lot of damage.
However, the summer heat is necessary for the growth and pistachio kernels development and should be enough.
Generally,Iran pistachio trees are located at latitude of 42-24 ° N, but the cultivation of Iran pistachio trees in Iran is 37-27 ° N
The pistachio tree can be easily planted in most soils of different tissues (texture) and genus
And in calcareous and passionate soils its tolerance is better than other fruit trees.
But in shallow, hard and rocky soils it does not produce good crop.
The best Iran pistachio soil is sandy clay soils The greater depth and the more uniform, makes pistachio trees grow better and faster and give more iran pistachio.
In assessing the quality of irrigation water, three important issues have to be considered
1-If water irrigation has less than 0.7 ds / m EC(Electrical Conductivity) and the its SAR
(Sodium adsorption ratio) was less than 3.5 0.7 ds /m.There is no limit to using this kind of water irrigation.
2-If water EC (Electrical Conductivity) was greater than 2 (ds / m), it will accumulate in salts, may cause accumulation of salts. For this reason, using of these waters will be restricted.
Irrigation water witch its SAR (Sodium adsorption ratio) was greater than 7, cause reduce water penetration in the soil. In this case, the imbalance between calcium –magnesium and sodium causes Particle dispersion.
Importance of proper management of irrigation
Iran located in the dry and semi-arid region of the world and the average annual rainfall is 250 mm, which is one third of the world’s average rainfall.
in other hand, the evaporation rate of the free surface of water and soils in Iran is equal to 2 meters and is equal to three times (triple)the average evaporation in the world.
Water requirement of plants directly related to rainfall and evapotranspiration, and the need for water increases with lower rainfall and higher plant evapotranspiration.
Irrigation experts, and users of the water and agriculture sector believe with decrease in water resources led us to the use of irrigation methods with best efficiency,
One of the ways to increase irrigation efficiency is to use ways that need less water with the rate of performance that is not significantly altered by reducing water consumption.
Generally, the water requirement of Iran pistachio seedlings is about 4000 cubic meters per hectare per year (for a 4-5-year-old seedlings),
and the same is recommended for one-year-old seedlings irrigation,
due to the fact that the pistachio plant in the First year,it has just been transported to the main place and it has little growth, so their actual demand is much less than 4 thousand cubic meters, and even less than a thousand cubic meters per hectare in the first year.
Since the role of water in life is very important, it can be saved by advanced and modern methods in the agricultural industry for irrigation, and even can provide more crops with better quality.
we all must help the life of future generations.
For get Iranian pistachio price pleas contact us:
Iranian pistachio insight
This year was a bad year for Iranian pistachio for various reasons such as:
- Inappropriate weather conditions
- Water shortage
- Inappropriate use of pesticides in previous years Across Iran,
there was a severe shortage of crop production, Estimates of this year are about 45-55 thousand tons and it’s almost the same from last year in stock,
so total available Iranian pistachio for 2018 is about 90 to 100 tones.
The quality of pistachios, especially the Fandoqi variety, is significantly better in compare with previous years, due to the low amount of each tree’s crop, pistachio trees had the proper nutrition.
Trade and export
Due to the sharp fluctuations in the dollar exchange rate and the fact that Iran’s pistachios are mostly exported, pistachio holders will not have much incentive to supply this product this year.
Consequently, exporters faced lots of risks, As
- Low supply
- High fluctuations of the dollar exchange rate
- Lack of proper financial
- Government sudden decisions in the area of currency and customs
- transport and insurance problems After new sanctions,
- truck strike strikes over the past few months
Along with low supply, there is no significant demand on the market, and the atmosphere in these days of the market is not good.
And businessmen are either observing the market or are happy about sudden profits or discomfort from overnight losses in these extreme fluctuations.
about 45-55 thousand tons and it’s almost the same from last year in stock.
so total available Iranian pistachio for 2018 is about 90 to 100 thousand tones.
Next year 2019 Iran pistachio crop forecast
The weather forecast indicates that Iran’s year 2019 will have a good rainfall,
Pistachio tree buds were very low in the last spring 2018, as a result, we saw very little pistachios crop.
A review of the status of pistachio trees promise lots of blooms in next year, we hope to have a good crop for next year.
Forecast of better Iran pistachio crop for next year
The head of the Agriculture Organization in northern province of Kerman talked about Iran pistachio:
“We expect that the next year will be a good year for Iranian pistachio producers.”
Abbas Saeedi, at the ISNA booth, on Fourth Press and Media Exhibition of Kerman Province, pointing to:
climate change over the past few years and said “climate change is too tangible”
He also mentioned “Climate changing has increased the temperature and reduced rainfall”
“Last year was a hard year for farming and animal husbandry in Kerman province, where more than 85% of the province faced severe drought”.
Kerman situation in pistachio farms
Head of Agriculture Organization of the northern province, considered Kerman province as one of the main agricultural center in Iran.
He pointed to the past crisis last year in the agricultural sector of the province, adding that:
“the excessive heat in April and the fluctuations temperatures in February unfortunately caused more than 90 percent of the province’s Iranian pistachios to be wasted”. And Due to climate change only 10000 tons’ pistachio left from 90000.
As a result of the untimely cold weather on 18, 19 and 20 April last year, about 18,000 tons of the Walnut spoiled.
Unfortunately, the temperature that increased in July and August also disappeared about 30,000 tons of the province’s date, while the drought caused the drying up and There were a lot of Qanats in the province.
Due to the last year’s April coldness About 18,000 tons of province walnuts were spoiled and, unfortunately, the temperature increase in July and August also destroyed about 30 thousand tons of province dates.
He spoke about the impact of climate change on the Animal Husbandry sector and said:
“climate change and droughts caused huge damage to the livestock and Animal Husbandry”.
Saeedi said :
Next year, Kerman province will rank first in pistachio production.
also said: “We expect the next year to be a fairly good year for pistachio producers”.
Iran pistachio green kernel production and consumption history
The history of the production and consumption of Iran pistachio green kernel was modestly known at around 800 to 700 years, and was consumed in Europe, especially in Germany. Since the Arabs seized Sicily The cultivation of pistachios in the Bronte region of Cecil become common, and its green kernel was sent to Germany.
Always a small amount of green kernels, about 250 tons per year, went from Sicily to Germany. It was also used in very luxurious foods such as sausages, banger and expensive snacks. But most Germans did not even know pistachios until the 60s;
The Arabian kernel was taken to Sicily?
The cultivation of pistachios was carried out by Muslims to Sicily. two local types were sent to Europe as a green kernel.
Today, there are two local pistachio cultivars, which are still exported to Europe in the form of a green kernel.
Its average annual production is 200 to 250 tons, all of which are produced in the mountain hillside of Mount Etna in Bronte Italy.
Apart from the Cecil Green kernel, since the early 60s, the only other pistachio exported to Europe in the form of a green kernel was a small amount of Iran pistachios in the city of Qazvin in Iran, which was about 40 tons of green kernel a year ago.
At the same time, Afghanistan produced about 100 tons of green kernel from its own pistachio.
It was bought by traders and Iranian companies, including the Iranian pistachio export company from Afghanistan, and they were peeling in Tehran with German machines and exporting them to Germany with a certificate from Iran.
So, by the beginning of the 60s, Sicily was the only supplier of green kernel, but since then, the products of Qazvin and Afghanistan have also been added.
How did the production of green kernel grow?
Before Iran extensively entered the work in the 1990s, as the demand grew, the Turks began to pick Iran Pistachio Kal, which was a green kernel, and exported it to Europe.
Turks did not use the green pistachiokernel for their sweet ones?
No, they only produced green Kernel for export. That’s why the Green Pistachio Kernel was taken to other markets.
For the first time around 85 or 86 AD, the Turks began to process pistachios and sent a kernel load to Spain. In 1987, they sent more to France and Spain.
The price of the green kernel at that time
In 1986, the price of green Iran pistachios was high, But the average Iranian pistachio price of the kernels was about six mark (worth of every German mark was almost half a euro). The price of pistachios was 2 to 3 marks.
At that time, the green kernel of Sicily was traded in about 36 German mark. In fact, due to the disappearance of Sicilian products at one-year, the green kernel market suffered from a severe shortage.
Is it possible in Iran to produce the green kernel extensively? Or must it be a special kind?
In Iran we do not need specific pistachio tree. Now any kind of pistachios will be sold.
Where’s the biggest green kernel market in Iran? Germany is the largest consumer of Iranian green kernel with a huge disparity in consumption; But up to now, about 70 percent of the green kernel was consumed in Germany, 20 percent to France, and 10 percent to other European destinations.
What is the reason for the popularity of the green kernel in Germany?
In addition to Germany’s historical record on the use of green kernels,
being luxury and expensive for green kernel in Germany is an advantage.
Once in a fair, a famous restaurant how came from Paris said:
“I buy green pistachio kernel for 50 euros, but the wholesale price is 28 euros.”
“Why cannot we get around € 35 straight from you?”
I said: “you are a restaurant; why do you want to buy a 50 euros’ item?”
He said: “there are some people know that the green pistachio is too expensive, if it is seen in sausages or meat or other foods, they say that this meat is also good because the price of the kernel is several times more than the cost of meat.”
So customer say the casseroles that has the green kernel inside, it is sure to have the rest of the material of the best quality.
Apart from the hundred-year history of consuming green kernel in expensive foods, in Germany, which eat expensive food and they are rich, the story of the green kernel is actually this;
Not only in the casseroles, but in everywhere else the green kernel is consumed, it’s more to decorate and represent that product; it means I am, no matter what taste I have!
The green kernel does not have too strong tastes to recognize it in the German casseroles, it just makes it look and it means the casseroles is luxury.
Is consumption different in Germany than in Japan?
Yes, Japanese consumption is only in cakes and sweets, as well as chopped on a luxury restaurant, but in Germany it is actually consumed inside sausages or powder for ice cream. Japan does not have ice cream and sausage with green kernel.
Frenches are famous chefs, why not green kernel so much gone to France?
Because if you do not roast Iran pistachio , there is not a strong tasty product.
The French are more interested in the taste of the food than its appearance or beauty. for That reason, use of the green kernel in Germany is high, because of its color.
In Germany, you cannot buy and sell fresh products with the combination of chemical colors.
For example, in ice cream, green Iran pistachio powder is used for green ice cream. You can only use color in dry food. There is nothing green except in the case of Iran pistachios.
Some say there are some very wealthy people in the Chinese market and like pistachio?
Probably those Chinese were who had traveled to Europe, particularly Germany, and became familiar with the green kernel and consumption types
Such people were still attracted to European luxury brands in bags and shoes and perfumes, not products like green pistachio kernel.
If the growth of this rich Chinese consumer class continues, China can be considered a great consumer of the green kernel in the future.
Whether the green kernel is picked up early, does it also reduce the risk of Aflatoxin?
Very much. Before Iran pistachios crack, and become open mouth, they do not have aflatoxin.
Is the cost of processing and producing for green kernel is more than Iran pistachios ordinary kernel?
How do you compare the cost of producing and processing two products, the price of one of which is three times the market? Certainly the cost of producing of expensive goods has been greater.
For example, the processing of green Iran pistachio kernel in the current time requires eye color and human labor force. While the pistachio does not have such a cost.
For example, a workshop that generates 400 tons of green kernel per year, keeps roughly 200 workers throughout the year, in spite of the open-mouth of pistachio processing, which can be processed with one-tenth of that manpower.